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Saturday, February 20, 2016

Medical Devices (Part 5)

CyberKnife Robotic Radiosurgery System (1999)




The CyberKnife is a miniature linear accelerator mounted to a robotic arm. It noninvasively delivers concentrated beams of radiation to a targeted tumor from multiple positions and angles. The tumor receives a cumulative dose of radiation high enough to control or kill the tumor cells while minimizing radiation exposure to surrounding healthy tissue. It delivers to almost all parts of the body, particularly for surgically complex tumors. In 1999, the device was approved for treatment of tumors in the head and base of skull. In 2001, FDA cleared enhancements to the CyberKnife System for tumors anywhere in the body.




da Vinci Surgical System (1999)





The da Vinci surgical system has made it possible to treat a broader range of conditions with a minimally invasive approach. The system's microchip technology and 3-D optics enable surgeons to perform complex procedures by making tiny incisions. The da Vinci offers users greater precision, an increased range of motion, improved dexterity, and enhanced visibility. Because of the device, patients may experience less pain, less scarring, reduced risk of infection, and a faster recovery time. The surgical system has been used to treat heart conditions, prostate cancer, endometrial cancer, morbid obesity, and mitral valve regurgitation.


 






PillCam (2001)






Is your digestive tract ready for its close-up? The PillCam is a capsule that houses a miniature video camera, lights, a transmitter, and batteries. Once a patient swallows the pill and it passes through the digestive tract, it takes photos of the small intestine and sends them to a small recorder affixed to the patient's belt. This technology has helped patients avoid invasive and painful endoscopic diagnostic procedures just by swallowing a pill. It also allows the entire small bowel to be viewed (endoscopes allowed physicians to see only the upper part of the small bowel).




OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test (2002)



Major progress has been made since the first AIDS-related diagnostic test was commercialized in 1988. In 2002, the OraQuick Advance Rapid HIV-1/2 Antibody Test became the first rapid HIV test to earn FDA approval. In clinical studies conducted by the manufacturer, OraSure Technologies Inc., the test correctly identified 99.6% of people who were infected with HIV-1 and 100% of people who were not infected with it. The test provides results for patients in about 20 minutes. This is key because with previous tests, which took several days to process, a significant number of patients never returned to the clinic to learn whether or not they were infected. The test can be stored at room temperature, requires no specialized equipment, and can be used in both laboratory and nontraditional clinical settings.











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